Talmi naming : Talmi names a nouns, usually objects. In rare cases, they can be positive-sounding verbs. Slick is an example of this.

Talmi obesity : Talmi gain fat equally over their entire bodies, and their ears progressively get heavier the more fat they have.

Talmi high jump: Talmi have spectacular leg muscles that allow them to hop up to almost twice their height, given a good running start (which they have) and the right motivation (which they’re getting).

Consider it nature’s way of making up for the fact they can’t reach the top shelf.

It's just the Talmi that're Jewish. If you want to get super-technical about it, they're classified as part of the "Path", which is a bit of an envelope for all the Abrahamic religions akin to the same way you could call folks "Christian" today and still get into an argument over whose sect is better or which groups are really "Christian" vs. something else. (i.e. when Jason brings it up, he's being a bit of a pedantic asshole.)
To shed a little light on the other folks, Jason and Daisy are both SubGenius (okay, Daisy is Jewish by blood, but the SubGenius stuff stacks), White Noise is Atheist/Agnostic, Addy is still her native religion (Tahlaist), and a big heaping mess of folks on the station are Endless (like the Star Org), though there's a healthy minority of Paean and Path, with the rest being certain home-world-centric religions that don't spread as much.
The Talmi are a bit of a special case because they're the only ones following some other religion enmass that wasn't developed by their own species / home-world. The Pangean Corporation considers it one of their biggest blunders not to get the Talmi under their auspices instead, and the Endless are just pissed off at everyone who isn't Endless anyway.

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